Đề cương Ôn tập môn Tiếng Anh Lớp 10 - Học kì II - Năm học 2019-2020

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  1. ĐỀ CƯƠNG ễN HỌC Kè 2 - KHỐI 10 - NEW MễN: TIẾNG ANH – Năm học 2019-2020 I. Vocabulary : Từ bài 6 đến hết phần Reading bài 10. II. Language focus and grammar: - Conditionals Type 1,2 - The Passive voice with Modals - Reported speech - Articles - Relative clauses - Comparatives and superlatives D. Cỏc dạng bài tập: 1. Pronunciation 2. Choose the best answer (vocabulary and grammar) 3. Error identification 4. Reading (Cloze test & Reading comprehension) 5. Word formation 6. Writing (Sentence building & sentence transformation) PRACTICE EXERCISES I.PRONUNCIATION Choose the word whose underlined part is pronounced differently from that of the others. 1. A. environment B. fertilizer C. editor D. scientist 2. A. disposal B. inorganic C. chemical D. natural 3. A. reduction B. pollution C. solution D. conclusion 4. A. Consume B. rinse C. resource D. Organise 5. A. Diverse B. Ritual C. Bridesmaid D. Decisive 6. A. Ceremony B. Prosperous C. Prestige D. Present (n) 7. A. Propose B. Approval C. Groom D. Superstition 8. A. Originate B. Prestigious C. engagement D. religious 9. A. preservation B. enrol C. preference D. secondary 10. A. sue B. spend C. sure D. pursue 11. A. dependent B. educate C. devotion D. accept 12. A. benefit B. encourage C. encounter D. implement 13. A. access B. affect C. application D. fact 14. A. digital B. fingertip C. identify D. mobile 15. A. preparation B. application C. suggestion D. education II.Choose the word whose stress is placed differently from that of the others. 16. A. fertilizer B. ecosystem C. agriculture D. environment 17. A.machinery B. independent C.preservation D.conservation 18. A. psychological B. environmental C. biological D. deforestation 19. A. atmosphere B. influence C. contaminate D. instrument 20. A. deplete B. preserve C. sewage D. pollute 21. A. reasonable B. appropriate C. enjoyable D. accessible 22. A. identify B. disadvantage C. technology D. eliminate 23. A. introduce B. understand C. consider D. entertain 24. A. limit B. demand C. research D. distract 25. A. culture B. diverse C. fortune D. altar 26. A. reception B. embarras C. devoted D. symbolise 27. A. freedom B. gender C. image D. admire 28. A. expense B. educate C. college D. income 29. A. success B. famous C. courage D. office 30. A. maintain B. perform C. prefer D. offer III.VOCABULARY AND GRAMMAR A.Vocabulary: Choose the best answer among A, B, C or D that best completes each sentence. 1. Since the appearance of electronic devices, lessons have become more and more ___ and effective. A. enjoyable B. disruptive C. accessible D. inappropriate 2. The phrase “___ natives” refers to people who are familiar with computers and the Internet from an early age. A. device B. portable C. electronic D. digital 3. Burning garbage ___ dangerous gases to the environment, and this may lead to global warming. A. throws B. sends C.emits D. rejects 4. Intensive pesticide and fertilizer sprays used in agriculture have resulted in the serious___of water, soil and land. A. protection B. pollution C. deforestation D. consumption 1
  2. 5. ___ is a term that refers to the existence of different kinds of animals and plants which make a balanced environment. A. Wildlife B. Biodiversity C. Challenge D. Investigation 6. The ___ rate of students in high schools is said to increases sharply this year. A. equality B. gender C. discrimination D. enrolment 7. A man who is getting married or about to get married is a___. A. bride B. bridegroom C. bridesmaid D. best man 8. A___ is a ceremony at which two people are married to each other. A. reception B. banquet C. wedding D. proposal 9. The bride may have one or more __who keep the bride calm, help her get ready and look after her dress. A. bridegroom s B. bridesmaids C. best men D. fiancộ 10. Digital lessons are available in a variety of webpages and they can be freely ___and stored in your computers. A. uploaded B. downloaded C. printed D. distracted 11. Personal electronic devices which ___students from their class work are banned in most schools. A. benefit B. protect C. distract D. submit 12. Thanks to the Internet, students can look ___new words in online dictionaries. A. in B. on C. at D. up 13. Her parents were delighted that their daughter was engaged ___such a nice young man. A. with B. for C. to D. at 15. Jack and Linda ___ last week. They just weren’t happy together. A. broke up B. broke into C. finished off D. ended up 16. We must solve the problem of air poluttion immediately for the ___ of the people living in this place. A. role B. side C. sake D. ritual 17. Now, if you’d all please raise your glasses, I’d like to make a ___ to the bride and groom. A. toast B. heat C. roast D. bake 18. The car owner sued the truck driver ___ the damage he caused to her car in the accident. A. about B. on C. to D. for 19. Non-renewable energy sources are running ___. A. up B. on C. to D. out 20. What do you think could be the negative effects of ___ computers ? A. overlooking B. overtaking C. overusing D. overeating 21. He's ___ with the president and may soon be fired. A. in favor of B. out of favor C. do a favor D. in his favor 22. We should develop such ___ sources of energy as solar energy and nuclear energy. A. tradition B. alternative C. revolutionary D. surprising 23. ___ are the standards and expectations to which women and men generally conform. A. Social problems B. Shabby manners C. Gender norms D. Ill omens 24. Those smart phones are selling like_. If you want one, you’d better buy one now before they’re all gone. A. hotdogs B. fresh bread C. hot cakes D. fresh shrimps 25. “What’s the matter? You don’t look very well.” – “I feel a little ___.” A. under the weather B. out of the blue C. out of order D. down to earth 26.I never___ the floor during the first three days of the New Year. A. cross B. exist C. sweep D. lay 27.Superstitions still___ an important part of life for many people in Vietnam. A. take B. play C. do D. give 28___ is a ceremony or service which is held shortly after a person’s death. A. funeral B. wedding C. house moving day D. farewell party 29.You should ___ attention to what your teacher is saying. A. take B. give C. have D. pay 30.Table ___ are always paid attention to by the British. A. Meaning B. meals C. manners D. decoration 31.Amish’s weddings ___ in the winter. A. Take after B. take over C. take place D. take along 32. The newly-wedding couple plan to spend their ___ in India. A. Honeymoon B. ceremony C. bride D. groom 33. To .is to keep and protect something from damage, change or waste. A. pollute B. preserve C. damage D. deplete 34. .is the removal or cutting down all trees in an area for urban use and farm lands. A. Greenhouse effect B. Depletion C. Deforestation D. Fossil fuels 35. are non-renewable energy sources such as coal, fuel oil and natural gas formed from dead plants and animals underground. A. Greenhouse effect B. Depletion C. Deforestation D. Fossil fuels 2
  3. 36. The .occurs when the earth’s atmosphere traps certain gases such as carbon dioxide as well as water vapour. This makes the earth’s surface warmer. A. greenhouse effect B. global warming C. deforestation D. fossil fuels 37. The of energy in this area has increased a lot since a new modern resort was built. A. consumption B. consume C. preserve D. preservation 38. The teacher will have a ___ tomorrow, you should attend to listen to her. A. lecture B. lecturer C. lectures D. lecturing 39. Coal is one of the ___ resources we often exploit. A. nature B. naturally C. natural D. natures 40. I want to live in a city without ___ around it. A. contamination B. contaminate C. contaminated D. contaminating 41. The ___ of life in my village is better and better. A. qualification B. quality C. qualify D. qualified 42. ___ is a person who lives in a particular place. A. Habitat B. Inhabitant C. Inhabitants D. Inhabitable B.Mark the letter A, B, C, or D to indicate the words/phrases that are CLOSEST in meaning to the underlined words/phrases. 1. A computer or laptop can be your powerful weapon and you can take advantage of the Internet your study. A. take notice of B. have benefits of C. take benefits of D. make use of 2. “Edwards seems like a dog with two tails this morning”. “Haven’t you heard the news? His wife gave birth to a baby boy early this morning.” A. extremely happy B. extremely dazed C. very exhausted D. very proud 3. Discharging chemical pollutants into the environment is a cruel action to the environment as well as the future generation. A. Releasing B. Filling C. Making D. Adding 4. The area is roped off because the water is seriously polluted. A. contaminated B. disappeared C. purified D. endangered 5. The environmental habital of some rare animals is being threatened. A. aware B. endangered C. dangerous D. share 6. Many species of fauna and flora in this national park is being in danger. A. sauna B. coral C. animals D. coastal 7. Water pollution is a result of dumping pollutants such as detergents, pesticides, oil and other chemicals in rivers. A. contaminants B. sewage C. insecticides D. substances 8. In Vietnam, people often choose a favorable day for their important occasions. A. beautiful B. suitable C. acceptable D. fair weathered 9. When do you intend to tie the knot with your Japanese girl? A. break up B. fall in love C. get married D. live under the same roof 10. After the wedding ceremony, there is usually a reception for the guests. A. proposal ceremony B. engagement ceremony C. formal party D. festival C.Mark the letter A, B, C, or D to indicate the word or phrase that is OPPOSITE in meaning to the italic part in each of the following questions. 1. We ought to keep these proposals secret from the chairman for the time being. A. lively B. frequented C. accessible D. revealed 2. They have not made any effort to integrate with the local community. A. cooperate B. put together C. separate D. connect 3. There has been insufficient rainfall over the past two years, and farmers are having trouble. A. adequate B. unsatisfactory C. abundant D. dominant 4. We offer a speedy and secure service of transferring money in less than 24 hours. A. slow B. open C. unsure D. uninterested 5. The young are now far more materialistic than their precedents years ago. A. monetary B. greedy C. spiritual D. object - oriented 6. One of the key to successful business is careful planning. A. falling B. victorious C. faulty D. impossible 7. Mr. Smith’s new neighbors appear to be very friendly. A. amicable B. inapplicable C. hostile D. futile 8. The clubs meet on the last Thursday of every month in a dilapidated palace. A. renovated B. regenerated C. furnished D. neglected 9. His extravagant ideas were never brought to fruition. A. impressive B. exaggerated C. unacceptable D. practical 10. This shouldn’t be too taxing for you. A. comfortable B. demanding C. easy D. relaxing 11. The Germany’s war hysteria has accounted for its people’s hostility towards foreigners. A. disease B. ceremony C. malaria D. serenity 3
  4. 12. He was ostracize by his colleagues for refusing to support the strike. A. crucify B. include C. patronize D. lionize. 13. Population growth rates vary among regions and even among countries within the same region. A. fluctuate B. stay unchanged C. restrain D. remain unstable 14. She could not hide her dismay at the result. A. disappointment B. depression C. happiness D. pessimism 15. Certain courses are compulsory; others are optional. A. voluntary B. free C. pressure D. mandatory 16. We offer a speedy and secure service of transferring money in less than 24 hours. A. uninterested B. unsure C. slow D. open 17. The Red Cross is an international humanitarian agency dedicated to reducing the sufferings of wounded soldiers, civilians and prisoners of war. A. worry and sadness B. pain and sorrow C. loss D. happiness 18. After five days on trial, the court found him innocent of the crime and he was released. A. innovative B. naùve C. guilty D. benevolent 19. Mr. Brown is a very generous old man. He has given most of his wealth to a charity organization. A. hospitable B. honest C. kind D. mean 20. In the first two decades of its existence, the cinema developed rapidly. A. leisurely B. sluggishly C. weakly D. shortly IV.Grammar: Choose the best answer among A, B, C or D that best completes each sentence. 1. ___ we to live in the country we wouldn’t mind having children. A. If B. Were C. Should D. Had 2. This is a rare opportunity___ you should take advantage to get a better job. A. to which B. for which C. of which D. on which 3. if you want to see the manager. A. You make an appointment B. Make an appointment C. You would make an appointement D. Should you make an appointement 4. The economic conditions today are ___ than they were in the past. A. much more good B. far better C. more better D. the best 5. This tablet is more modern, but it costs___ the other one. A. as twice much as B. twice as much as C. two times much as D. two times as more than 6. She reminded me to come on time for the party ___. A. tomorrow evening B. the day after tomorrow C. in two days’ timeD. next weekend 7. He asked me why ___to the meeting. A. didn’t I come B. don’t I come C. you didn’t come D. I hadn’t come 8. The United States consists of fifty states, ___ has its own government. A. they each B. each of them C. each of which D. each of that 9. We are talking about the writer ___ latest book is one of the best-sellers this year. A. who B. whose C. which D. whom 10. Gender equality ___ without the support of the government, organization, and individuals. A. Mustn’t be achieved B. needn’t be achieved C. shouldn’t be achieved D. cannot be achieved 11. Of the two projects, I think the first one is ___ . A. the most convincing B. the more convincing C. more convincing D. most convincing 12. Can you imagine what___ if the air ___ polluted entirely? A. will happen / is B. would happen / were C. had happen / had been D. happened / will be 13. I have two brothers. ___older one is training to be ___ pilot with British Airways. ___ younger one is still at ___ school. A. The/ x/ the/ x B. The/ a/ the /x C. an/ a/ the/ x D. the/ the/ the/ x 14. Do you know the man___ lives in the house opposite mine? A. who B. what C. which D. when 15. She plays ___ guitar very well. She is an accomplished guitarist. A. a B. an C. the D. ỉ 16. WWF recognised the giant panda ___the symbol of the organisation. A. as B. like C. under D. with 17. All forms of discrimination against all women and girls ___immediately everywhere. A. must be taken away B. must be ended C. must be allowed D. must be followed 18. True gender equality___ when both men and women reach a balance between work and family. : A. can achieve B. should be achieved C. can be achieved D. should achieve 19. You must slow down in built-up areas. __ you drive in the city, it is ___ that you’ll have an accident. A. The faster and faster / the more B. The faster / the more probable C. The more and more fast / the more and more probable D. The more fastly / the probable 4
  5. 20. Notebooks, tablets and cellphones are all technology ___students are accustomed and can use as learning aids. A. with which B. to it C. to which D. with that 21. All smartphones___storage hardware is big can store downloaded audio books. A. which B. who C. whose D. that 22. Science teachers___use the 3D projectors and other electronic devices can easily illustrate the lessons. A. whom B. what C. who D. whose 23. Last week, he told us that we ___ a picnic at the end of the week on Friday. A. can have B. did have C. would have D. had had 24. I asked her ___ to pursue higher studies the next year. A. are you planning B. if she is planning C. was she planning D. if she was planning 26. Would you be angry if I ___ your pocket dictionary? A. stolen B. have stolen C. stole D. steal 27. If it ___ convenient, let’s go out for a drink tonight. A. be B. is C. was D. were 28. Paul walked past me without saying a word. He ___ me. A. mightn’t have seen B. shouldn’t have seen C. mustn’t have seen D. needn’t have seen 29. A child ___ everything he or she wants. A. must be givenB. shouldn’t be given C. mustn’t be givenD. can be given 30. He is wearing a gold ring on his fourth finger. He ___. A. must be married B. should be marriedC. can be marriedD. might be married V: COMMUNICATION:Mark the letter A, B, C or D to indicate the correct answer to each of the following questions. 1. “Thank you for taking the time to come here in person.” “ ” A. It’s my pleasure. B. I don’t know what time that person comes. C. I’d love to come. What time? D. Do you have time for some gossip? 2. “I have a terrible headache.” “ ” A. Maybe I’m not going to the doctor’s. B. Not very well. Thanks. C. Maybe you should take a rest. D. Not bad. I’m going to the doctor’s. 3. “Do you want me to help you with those suitcases?” “ ” A. Of course, not for me. B. No, I can’t help you now. C. No, those aren’t mine. D. No, I can manage them myself. 4. “What does it cost to get to Manchester?” “ ” A. It’s interesting to travel to Manchester. B. It depends on how you go. C. I always go by train. D. I don’t like to go by train. 5. “ ” “Yes. Do you have any shirts?” A. Could you do me a favour? B. Oh, dear. What a nice shirt! C. May I help you? D. White, please. 6. “What’s the best place to eat lunch?” “ ” A. I’ll have soup, please. B. There’s a great restaurant at the corner of the street. C. I usually eat lunch at twelve. D. Twelve would be convenient. 7. “Maybe you can take a vacation next month.” “ ” A. Nothing special. B. You’re welcome. C. It’s very expensive. D. I don’t think so. I’m teaching all summer. 8. “What do you think of your new DVD player?” “ ” A. I love it. B. My brother gave it to me. C. It was a gift from my brother. D. I always put it there. 9. “How long you been recently?” “ ” A. It’s too late now. B. Pretty busy, I think.C. By bus, I think. D. No, I;ll not be busy. 10. “Do you need a knife and a fork?” “ ” A. No, I’ll just use a frying pan. B. No, I’ll just use chopsticks. C. No, I’ll just use a can opener. D. No, I’ll use a cooker. 11. Lily: “I’m sorry. I can’t be of more help in this matter”. –Tuan: “ ” A. Yes, the matter is helpless B. That’s fine. I understand C. You are welcome D. That’s a problem 12. Davis: - I reckon that preserving the environment is the responsibility of every individual. Mai: “- ___ . Everyone should do something to protect the earth - our common home.” A. I see things differently B. I’ll say the opposite C. There is no room for doubt D. That’s not always the case 13. Would you mind turning your stereo down ? - A. Not at all B. I’d be gald to C. Yes, I’ll do it now D. Sorry. I didn’t mean it 5
  6. 14. Marry: “ Do you fancy black coffee or white coffee?”- John: “ ” A. Let me make you a hot cup B. Never mind C. It’s all the same to me D. It’s my cup of tea 15. Kara: “Do you want to book an eco tour or a camping safari?”- Bella: “ ” A. Yes, I want a book about eco tours B. An eco tour sounds more interesting to me C. No, I do not like a camping safari D. I couldn’t agree more VI.ERROR IDENTIFICATION: Choose the underlined part that needs correction 1. It is right that politicians (A) should make (B) important decisions without consulting (C) the public to who (D) they are accountable? 2. In an essay(A) writing(B) in 1779, Judith Sargeant Murray promoted the cause of (C) women’s education(D). 3. This year (A), that (B) is for the first time, the event is open to (C) all amateur athletes along with (D) the traditional professional. 4. Some people(A) think that there is still(B) gender discriminate (C) in(D) our country. 5. Working as (A) a volunteer provides(B) you for(C) opportunities to know more about (D) cultural diversity. 6. They announced that(A) he has met(B) a number of key(C) figures the day(D) before. 7. I have never been to(A) Danang, where(B) is said to be the most(D) peaceful city in Vietnam(D) 8. What is(A) the name of the(B) boy his father(C) is the president of the(D) school parents Association? 9. Personal(A) electronic devices may bring(B) more harmful(C) than good(D) to students 10. One reason birds have been(A) so successful is because of their able to escape from danger quickly(D) 11. Bacteria lived(A) in the soil play(B) a vital role in recycling(C) the carbon and nitrogen needed(D) by plants. 12. Any bicycle brought (A) onto school(B) grounds should clearly babel(C) with the owner’s(D) name 13. The charity(A) organization provides a poor(B) in the locality with(C) a lot of household furniture(D). 14. You mustn’t(A) fill in this section if(B) you don’t want to(C) . It’s(D) optional. 15. He said to me(A) that his father has worked(B) for(C) that company for 20 years(D). 16. Rattan, a close(A) relative of bamboo, is often used to make tables, chairs, and other furnitures. 17. Cable television(A) companies recently(B) announced that it(C) will increase services charges(D) next year. 18. The written(A) English, which is not systematically(B) phonetic, causes difficulties(C) to the foreigners. 19. Natural(A) resources provide the raw material are needed(B) to produce(C) finished goods(D) . 20. The(A) policeman asked the boy if(B) he has really seen(C) that happen(D) with his own eyes. VII.WORD BUILDING: 1. As a country situated in Asia, in which many mysteries and legends originate, Vietnam has kept various___superstitious___ beliefs about daily activities. (SUPERSTITION) 2. The coastal areas have been severely ___polluted__by the disposals of harmful chemical rubbish. (POLLUTE) 3. The___consumption__of fossil fuels has gradually increased in many countries which is concern for many environmentalists. (CONSUME) 4. All fossil fuels are ___non-renewable__ resources that cannot be replaced after use. (RENEW) 5. Increased consumption will lead to faster ___exhaustion___ of our natural resources. (EXHAUST) 6. Many national parks have been established to protect ___endangered___animals. (DANGER) 7. A large international meeting was held with the aim of promoting ___sustainable__ development in all countries. (SUSTAIN) 8. __Environmentalists__ are making great efforts to help save the giant panda from becoming extinction. (ENVIRONMENT) 9. Evolution occurs as a result of __adaptation___ to new environments. (ADAPT) 10. __Ecotourism __is the business of organizing holidays to places that people do not usually visit in a way which does not damage the environment. (TOURISM) 11. The destruction of the rain forests is an __ecological__ disaster. (ECOLOGY) 11. Pike claimed they had __discriminated__ against him because of his nationality. (DISCRIMINATION) 12. She was aware of gender ___preference___ in favour of men in her company. (PREFER) 13. These old envelops are ___reusable___so we can save money (USE ) 14___ Interestingly ___ , my father used to go to school with your father. ( INTEREST ) 15. The ___massive___loss of land is the result of severve deforestation ( MASS ) 16. It is advised that ___tourists__ must be responsible for their action during the trip ( TOUR) 17. In Russia, it is believed that black cats bring ___misfortune__ to the people who happen to meet them. (FORTUNE) 18. In the UK, it is ___customary__ for the bride to throw her bouquet of flowers into a crowd of well-wishers. (CUSTOM) 19. Voice ___recognition__is the app which helps some types of smartphone attracts customers (RECOGNIZE ) 20. Accessing to __inappropriate__ information harms your mental health ( APPROPRIATE ) VIII.READING: Fill a word that best fits each space in the following passage. Passage 1: Like man, most plants depend on animals for many of their basic (1) ___needs___ . Without animals, many plants could not easily reproduce. (2) ___For___ example, many plants with flowers depend on bees and (3) 6
  7. ___other___ insects to carry their pollen from plant. Many oak trees grow from acorns that squirrels bury and then forget, or from acorns that deer step on and push deep into the soil. Birds often (4) ___fly___ from one place to another with seeds clinging to their feet. The seeds may sprout a great distance from the parent (5) ___plants___ . Passage 2: Do you avoid walking (1) ___under___ladders ? Do black cats make you nervous ? Some people are very superstitious. They carry a lucky charm such as a rabbit’s foot (2) ___wherever___ they go. Why is a rabbit lucky ? Because it’s born with its eyes open, of course! Where do superstitions (3) ___come___ from ? Long ago, people didn’t have the scientific knowledge we do today. To reduce their fear about unexplainable events, people came up with rituals. They passed their beliefs (4) ___down___ from generation to generation. Some superstitions are timeless. Floors in buildings still go from the 12th to the 14th floor, even though nobody can agree (5) __why___ the number 13 is unlucky. Passage 3: Although some groups of people have always lived outdoors in tents, camping as we know it today only began to be popular about 50 years (1) __ ago__. The increase in the use of cars and improvements in camping (2) ___ equipment___ have allowed more people to travel longer distances into the countryside and to stay there in greater comfort. Many campers like to be (3) ___by___ themselves in quiet areas, so they take their tent and food and walk or (4) ___cycle ___into the forests or the mountains. Others, preferring to be near people , drive to a public or privately- owned campsite (5) ___which___ has up-to-date facilities like hot showers and swimming pools. IX.READING COMPREHENSION: Read the following passage and choose the best answers to the questions. Passage 4: Conservation conflicts arise when natural-resource shortages develop in the face of steadily increasing demands from a growing human population. Controversy frequently surrounds how a resource should be used, or allocated, and for whom. For example, a river may supply water for agricultural irrigation, habitat for fish, and water-generated electricity for a factory. Farmers, fishers, and industry leader vie for unrestricted access to this river, but such freedom could destroy the resource, and conservation methods are necessary to protect the river for future use. Conflicts worsen when a natural resource crosses political boundaries. For example, the headwaters, or source, of a major river may be located in a different country than the country through which the river flows. There is no guarantee that the river source will be protected to accommodate resource needs downstream. In addition, the way in which one natural resource is managed has a direct effect upon other natural resources. Cutting down a forest near a river, for instance, increases erosion, the wearing away of topsoil, and can lead to flooding. Eroded soil and silt cloud the river and adversely affect many organisms such as fish and important aquatic plants that require clean, clear freshwater for survival. 1. What does “supply” in line 3 mean? A. cover B. provide C. make up for D. compensate for 2. Which word in the reading means “ living or growing in, or relating to water” ? A. agriculture B. major C. fresh D. aquatic 3. When do conflicts get worse ? A. when natural-resource shortages increase in the features of gradually increasing demands from a rising human population. B. when a natural resource crosses political borders C. when freedom could destroy the resource. D. when eroded soil and silt cloud affect many organisms. 4. Which sentence below is NOT correct? A. Argument often surrounds how a resource should be used, or allocated, and for whom. B. A river may provide water for agricultural irrigation, habitat for fish, and water-generated electricity for a factory C. Conservation methods are incidental to care for the river for future use. D. Farmers, fishers and industry leaders vie for open access to this river. 5. What is the passage above mainly about? A. Conservation conflicts B. Agricultural irrigation C. The headwaters of a major river D. Natural-resource shortages Passage 5: In many ways, the increasingly rapid pace of climate change is a direct result of the growth of the human population. In the last 100 years, the world population has more than tripled. Obviously, this has meant that the world has needed to produce three times as much food, energy, and other natural resources. In addition, the average person uses more energy and natural resources than the average person one hundred years ago, meaning that the rates of consumption are actually much higher than just the increase in population would imply. All of these activities: food production, energy usage, and the use of natural resources, contribute to climate change in some way. The greater amounts of oil and other fuels burned to create energy release chemicals which add to global warming. In order to produce more food, farmers cut down trees to gain more land for their fields. In addition, we cut down trees to build the houses needed for a larger population. Those trees are an essential part of controlling global warming. In addition to a growing population, the world also has a population that desires a higher standard of living than in the past, and a higher standard of living requires the use of even more natural resources. For example, China is the world’s 7
  8. most populous nation, with 1.3 billion people. Currently, the standard of living for most of those people is far below that of people in first world nations. Therefore, the average Chinese citizen uses far fewer natural resources and less energy than the average citizen of the US or Japan. If every Chinese person attains a first world lifestyle, the amount of energy and natural resources needed in the world will double, even if the standard of living in every other nation on Earth remains the same as it is today. 1. The word “pace” in the passage is closest in meaning to ___. A. growthB. speed C. problem D. pollution 2. The word “consumption” in the passage is closest in meaning to ___. A. development B. usage C. population D. increase 3. According to the passage, how does food production contribute to global warming? A. Food production requires that the forests be cleared to create farmland. B. Food production uses many chemicals which add to global warming. C. Producing more food leads to growth in the world population. D. Food production decreases the ability of the air to release heat. 4. According to the passage, how does the standard of living affect global warming? A. Higher standards of living are better for the environment. B. First world nations create less population than developing nations. C. The use of natural resources is directly related to the standard of living. D. High standards of living lead to increases in world population. 5. Why does the author discuss China, Japan and the United States? A. To compare the standards of their citizens. B. To explain why China will not be able to become a first world nation. C. To explain why the world’s use of energy will need to double soon. D. To better illustrate the effects of an increase in standards of living. X. WRITING A.Rewrite the following sentences with the given words. 1. The last person that leaves the house must lock the door. (Reducing the relative clause)  The last person to leave the house must lock the door. 2. I can’t remember the name of the garage. We had the car repaired at this garage. (Using a relative pronoun)  I can’t remember the name of the garage where/ at which we had the car repaired . 3. I’m sure that you are exhausted because you've been driving all day. (using “must”)  You must be exhausted because you've been driving all day. 4. We didn’t go on holiday because we didn’t have enough money.  If we had enough money, we would have gone on holiday. 5. I would like to express my thanks for everything you have done for me. (using the word “ thankful” )  I’d like to say how thankful I am for everything you have done for me. 6. The porter said to me, "I'll wake you up when the train arrives in Leeds."(using Reported speech)  The porter said (to me that) he would wake me up when the train arrived in Leeds. 7. Don’t be impatient or you will make mistakes.  If you are impatient, you will make mistakes. 8. The car breaks down so often because you don’t take good care of it. => Were you to take care of the car , it would not broke down so often. 9. A number of suggestions were made at the meeting. Most of them were not very practical.(Using a relative pronoun) => Most of the suggestions (which/that ware) made at the meeting were not very practical 10. "Phone to me for an answer tomorrow” the manager said to the client. (using Reported speech) => The manager told/asked the client to phone him for an answer the day after. 11. It is necessary to finish the project today.  The project needs to be finished/ finishing today. 12. It's possible that Joanna didn't receive my message.  Joanna might not have received my message. 13. It wasn’t Tom in the mall yesterday because he was in the hospital. I’m sure. Tom can’t have been in the mall yesterday because he was in the hospital. 14. It was wrong of you to criticize him in front of many people.  You shouldn’t have criticized him in front of many people. 15. He regrets having said those terrible things.  He wished he had not said those terrible things. 16. I’m sure that he did it on purpose.  He must have done it by mistake/accident/chance. 17. It is not neccessary for you to pay too much attention to your appearance.  You don’t need to pay too much attention to your appearance. 18. Life on earth will be destroyed if nuclear tests do not stop.  Should nuclear tests not stop, Life on earth will be destroyed . 8
  9. 19. This is the first time I have ever met such a kind-hearted girl.  She is the most a kind-hearted girl I have ever met. 20. My house is 115 square meters wide, An’s house is 115 square meters wide, too. (using “size” )  My house ( which is 115 square meters wide) is the same size as An’s. B.Make meaningful sentences with the given suggestions: 1. He/ not/ know /foreign language/ made/ it /difficult/ him / get /well-paid job. → He doesn’t/ didn’t know any foreign language, which makes/made it difficult for him to get a well-paid job. 2. nowadays/ our lives/ improved/ much/ progresses/ science and technology// → Nowadays our lives have been much improved by the progresses made in science and technology. 3. Recent laws / prohibit/ specific types/ /job discrimination/ /certain workplaces// promoted /equal employment opportunity/ USA. → Recent laws that prohibit specific types of job discrimination in certain workplaces have promoted equal employment opportunity in the USA. 4. air / many areas / so unclean that / people/ have to / masks / going / streets → The air in many areas is so unclean that many people have to wear masks when going out on the streets. 5. Air pollution / lead / greenhouse effect / make / temperature / earth’s surface / higher →Air pollution leads to the greenhouse effect making the temperature of the earth’s surface higher 6. Everyone / live / earth / should have / responsibility / reduce / air pollution / protect clean air / our survival → Everyone living on the earth should have responsibility to reduce air pollution and protect clean air for our survival. 7. Wild animals/live / natural habitat/ have / better/ longer life// those / kept/ /protected areas. → Wild animals living (which/that live) in their natural habitat will have a better and longer life than those which are kept in protected areas. 8. Children / parents/ allow/ them / use/ electronic devices/ early/ will /more advantages / future. → Children whose parents allow them to use electronic devices early will have more advantages in the future. 9. Worldwide governments / should / control measures / reduce air pollution / and / protect / natural environment / future generation. → Worldwide governments should have control measures to reduce air pollution and protect the natural environment for the future generation 10. lot /people/ choose/ favorable date/ occasions/ such/ wedding/funeral/ house moving days. // → A lot of people choose a favorable date for occasions such as wedding, funeral and house moving days. C. Rewrite the following sentences, using Comparative. 1. My homework is worse than yours. Your homework is___ 2. He does the test more easily than Nga. Nga___ 3. A dictionary is more expensive than an English book. An English book___ 4. He behaves now worse than he used to. He used to___ 5. My uncle is fatter than my father. My father___ 6. Viet Nam isn’t as large as the USA The USA___ 7. My friend cooks better than I do. I___ 8. Hue to Ha Noi is nearer than HCM City to Ha Noi. HCM City to Ha Noi ___ 9. She is the most intelligent student in my class. No one___ 10. This city has more population than that city. That___ 11. The crowd became increasingly angry at the long delay. ___ the delay (was), ___ the crowd became. 12. The value of a picture depends on how famous the artist is. ___ an artist (is), ___ the picture is. 13. How well I sleep depends on how late I go to bed. ___ I go to bed, ___I sleep. 14. I don’t spend much time with my family because I work so hard. ___ I work, ___ I spend with my family. 15. The traffic moves very slowly as more cars comes into the city. 9
  10. ___ cars come into the city, ___ the traffic moves. D. Rewrite the sentences, using relative clauses. Pay attention to the comma(s) where necessary. 1. Mr. Smith said he was too busy to speak to me. I had come specially to see him. ___ 2. I missed the train. I usually catch this train. ___ 3. I saw several houses. Most of them were quite unsuitable. ___ 4. This is a story of a group of boys. Their plane crashed on an uninhabited island. ___ 5. He introduced me to his students. Most of them were from abroad. ___ 6. He expected to pay me $2 for 12 eggs. Four of the eggs were broken. ___ 7. I was introduced to a man. I had seen his brother on television the evening before. ___ 8. I was given this address by a man. I met this man on a train ___ 9. A man answered the phone. He said Tom was out. ___ 10. At 6.00 thick fog descended. 6.00 was an hour before the plane was due. ___ 11. I couldn't remember the number of my own car. This made the police suspicious, ___ 12. I’ve just spoken to Sally. She sends you her love. ___ 13. I waited for him until 4.30. At that point I gave up. ___ 14. The receptionist gave me very useful information. The information___ 15. What did you do with the money? Your grandparents gave it to you. What did you do ___ 16. I met a girl in the library. I’ve told you about this girl. ___ 17. He read the poem to us. The poem has been translated into several languages. The poem___ 18. They work for a company. The company offers space tourism. The company___ 19. I lent him a book. It was written by Daniel Defoe. The book I ___ 20. I gave you a book. It had many pictures. → The book ___ E. Transform the sentences into passive voice. 1. You may forget the rules quickly. 2. You should study the lessons repeatedly. 3. People can find some interesting animals in the zoo. 4. They can’t build a new house at this location. 5. You must put this glass vase in a safe place. 6. Can just one person move that heavy chair? 7. You should read the safety instructions. 8. They built that bridge 3 years ago. 9. Will the teacher test our English? F. Rewrite the sentences using Conditional sentences type 1 or 2. 1. Tom always overeats at lunch because he never eats breakfast. If 10
  11. 2. I don’t know enough about the machine, so I can't mend it myself. If 3. I don’t ride the bus to work every morning because it’s always so crowded. If 4. Unless she earned a lot of money, she wouldn’t go home. If 5. Unless you break his car, he won’t call the police. If 6. He can’t go out because he has to study for his exam. 7. She is lazy so she can’t pass the exam. 8. He smokes too much; that’s why he can’t get rid of his cough. 9. She is very shy, so she doesn’t enjoy the party. 10. He doesn’t take any exercises. He is so unhealthy. 11. We can’t get the ticket because I don’t have the right change. 12. Study hard or you won’t pass the exam. G. Change into reported speech. 1. “Would you like to go camping with us next weekend?” Andrew said to Cindy. Andrew invited 2. She said, “I must go home this evening.” 3. “Make a list of what you want”, she said to us. 4. The teacher said to us “Don’t make noise in class.” 5. Janet said: “My brother will get married next month.” 6. Her father said: “I was in a business trip yesterday.” . 7. Nam said to me “I have just passed the exam.” 9. He said: “My son is serving in the army now.” 10. Ben said to the girl: “I am glad to see you here so early.” 11. “Why don’t we organize an English competition for our student?” said Ms Lien. Ms Lien suggested 12. “I’m sorry I’m late,’ said Mr Thanh. Mr Thanh apologized 13. “Me? No, I didn’t take Sue’s calculator,” Said Bob. Bob denied 14. “You took my pencil,” said David to Henry. David accused 15. “I must see the manager,” he cried. He insisted 16. “Don’t forget to prune the roses,” my aunt said to Alfred. My aunt reminded 17. “Would you like me to help you with the cooking, Tom?” Laura said. Laura offered 18. “If you don’t pay the ransom, we’ll kill your son,” the kidnappers said to them. The kidnappers threatened ===The end!=== 11